Early in the history of oak wine, amphorae vessels of choice for storage and transportation of alcohol. Due to the nature of the perishable material timber is difficult to monitor the use of the barrel in history. The Greek historian Herodotus noted that the ancient Mesopotamians used wooden barrels to transport wine palm along the Euphrates River. Palm is a very difficult material to bend and fashion into the barrel, however, and wine merchants in the different regions have experimented with different styles of wood to find a better source of timber.  The use of oak have been common in the production of wine for at least two millennia, was first put into widespread use during the Roman Empire. In time, winemakers discovered that not only to facilitate the storage, the wine is kept in oak barrels takes on the properties are improved it by making it more gently, and in a some cases, better tasting.  Robert Mondavi is credited with the expansion of knowledge of wine producers in the United States about the different types of stylish oak and barrel through his experiments in the 1960s and 70s.
Effects on alcohol
The effects of old oaks on two varietals Cabernet Sauvignon Penedès region, a two-year-old cosecha (left) and six-year-old Crianza (right). When the wine matures, its color changes from dark red bruises or a lighter red brick, and take a good look now than in glass.
Porous nature of oak barrels allows evaporation and oxidation occurs in wine, but not at a level that could cause oxidation or spoilage. 59 gallon (225 liter) tank can typically take anywhere from 5½ to 6½ gallons (21-25 liters) (mainly wine and water) in a year through evaporation. This allows the wine to concentrate the flavor and aroma of its compounds. A small amount of oxygen is allowed to pass through the barrel and acts as a softening agent when the tannins of the wine.
The chemical properties of oak can have a profound effect on the wine. Phenol in the wood interact to produce vanilla type and can form nodules or sweet tea. The degree of “toast” in their enclosures can also impart different characteristics affecting the level of tannin and wood aggressive flavor.  The hydrolyzed tannins in the wood, known as ellagitannins, are derived from the lignin in the wood structure. They help protect the wine from oxidation and reduction.
Sherry oak barrels for aging. It has a transparent front for everyone to see the inside
Wine can be fermented in oak barrels or placed in oak after fermentation during aging or mature. Wines aged in oak get much oak flavor and properties than wine aged in oak for yeast cells present in the fermentation interacts with and “sticking to” the oak component. When the dead yeast cells are removed as Lees some oak character to go with them.
Features of the white wines are fermented in oak include pale and velvety texture added. White wine is fermented in steel and oak will grow in darker by heavy phenolic compounds still present.  notes incense is often used to describe the wines exposed oak include caramel, cream, smoke, spice and vanilla. Chardonnay is a well with a very different flavor profiles when fermented in oak, which include coconut, cinnamon and clove notes. The “toastiness” can bring the barrel of the mocha and toffee different notes in red wine.
The length of time spent in the barrel wine is good depends on the type and style of finished goods, the winemaker wants. The majority of oak aromas are conveyed in the first few months of alcohol exposure to oak, while adding long exposure light and ventilation barrel, helped precipitate the phenolic compounds and more active in the aging process .  New World Pinot noir can spend less than one year in oak. Premium Cabernet Sauvignon can take two years. The Nebbiolo grape is very tannic could spend four or more years in oak. senior producer Rioja will sometimes older, their wines up to ten years in American oak trees to get a desirable flavor earthy and herbal.